Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is considered as a significant branch of mechanical engineering that has concentrated its focus on analyzing and thereafter solving the problems regarding fluid flows. In simpler terms, CFD is the application of physics mathematics and computer software’s to understand the flow of gas of liquid and their effects. For serving this purpose numerical analysis and data structures put into use for performing accurate calculations necessary for the simulation. In the context of advanced research scenario, the application of supercomputers is highly desired concerning the appearing of potential complex situations. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation stones of the concept of CFD as these assist divulging relations among pressure, density, temperature, velocity, etc.
Advantages and Disadvantages of CFD: IN the present era, computational fluid dynamics has been noticed to be applied in different fields ranging from aerospace engineering to sports. Such wide acceptance of CFD has been catalyzed due to several factors. These advantages of CFD are:
- The new designs of CFD are capable of reducing both costs and time duration that is certainly highly beneficial for the users
- The problems that involves very difficult and risky experimental processes can be analyzed through the simulation process of CFD reducing the dangers of experimentation along the way
- The availability of details that bound no limits is a major advantage of CFD
- The potential of perceiving the features of the result as a consequence of the possible generation of multiple graphs avails added value to the products
There are several disadvantages of computational fluid dynamics as well. These are:
- Accuracy in case of certain situations is not beyond doubts that often puts the accountability of the process into question
- A major drawback of CFD is the presence of several incomplete models that are frequently used to solve complex situations such as turbulence
- The output of the pc is likely to be considered to be true every time by an user who is not properly trained in the CFD techniques
Different Stages of a typical CFD Simulation: In order to conduct a proper CFD simulation that offers substantial results it is essential to follow a sequential procedure to reach meaningful conclusions. These steps have been listed below.
- Setting Modeling Goals: Before the commencement of the simulation process, it is a necessity to set the goals that are to be achieved through the process. As figuring out the objectives, required models, boundary conditions, research area, etc are essential to ensure accuracy in terms of outcomes in the context of the simulation, hence, identification of the assumptions is pivotal from this standpoint.
- Creation of Geometry Model: After the determination of the assumptions and simplifications required for the simulation process, development of appropriate simulation model is of significant importance. This model can be formed by CFD software packages or CAD modeling softwares that defines the certain approach of the whole simulation process.
- Setting and Creating Mesh: The success of the whole simulation process is depended on accuracy of the transformation of the CAD model into smaller elements. This being one of the most central aspects should be dealt with considerable consideration regarding the geometry and flow. The whole mesh must be done in accordance with the identification of high gradients areas.
- Defining Solver and Physics: Once the meshing is properly created the next step is to decide the form of solver needed for the process in alignment with the nature of the problem. This further determines the need of a particular physical model according to the problem. The success of the simulation is influenced by the subsequent selection of operating conditions and boundary conditions as well.
- Monitoring and Evaluation of the Solution: Monitoring and evaluating the solution is supposed to be the next step as extracting important data and eliminating the iterations help increasing the accuracy of the process resulting in identifying the flow patterns, forces, flux qualities, etc.
- Revision of the Model: The final step of a CFD simulation process is to review the appropriateness of the physical model and solver used in the context of the results extracted. This also helps in determining the level of accuracy of the meshing and boundary conditions as well.
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