From the beginning, we all are studying different definition of our beloved topic, i.e. Matter. But, now it’s time to get your attention on the overview of this most important aspect of chemistry.
What is matter? Explain with examples?
In the simplest term, Matter is somewhat any tangible object which occupies space and has mass. In today’s world, everything is made up of matter. To understand more clearly, let’s take some examples of properties of matter in science. Like car, paper, table, people and computer etc. As, these objects contains space and has mass. However, ideas, imagination and emotions are not included in the classification of matter as these things don’t have any kind of mass and space.
How many different states of matter are there?
There are different types of matter and its properties in different forms. These general properties of matter are listed below:
Solids: One of the most important state among all matter properties i.e. Solids. In this Property of matter, particles are very tightly packed together so that they are not able to move much. In the case of solids, they do not adapt the shape of holder in which they are positioned in. The most striking characteristics of solid matter are as follows:
- They have a definite shape
- They have a fixed volume
- The elements are so closely and firmly filled together that even increase in pressure would not allow solids to compress.
For examples: Steel, brick, rock, apple, copper, brass and wood etc.
Liquids: Another state of matter that frequently asked in the examination i.e. Liquids. In this phase, the particles present have more kinetic energy as compared to solids. Furthermore, the liquid elements are not seized in a fixed arrangement but they are somewhat close to each other. Having an indefinite shape, the elements of liquid have enough space to move around each other. But, in the case of Liquids, they cannot be compressed like solids.
For examples: Water, milk, honey, coffee, urine and blood etc.
Gases: As compared to solids and liquids, the particles in the gas matter have more empty space between them with high kinetic energy and low density. Gases have no fixed shape and volume. In this type of state of matter, the atoms move very rapidly, causing them to spread out and diffuse. When further gas particles enter a holder, they become compressed.
For examples: Air, carbon-dioxide, hydrogen, water vapor, nitrogen and helium etc.
How many different states of matter are there?However, apart from these three properties of matter, there are some other properties of matter that makes this topic more fascinating than any other.
1. Plasma: Plasma is a general state of matter in the whole universe. It contains extremely charged particles with high kinetic energy, than any other states of matter. Additionally, it also holds noble gases (argon, neon, helium, krypton, radon and xenon) that used to make blooming signs by using power to ionize them to the plasma state.
For examples: Lightning, solar wind, tale of a comet and fireball of a nuclear explosion.
2. Bose-Einstein condensates: This low energy state of matter is derived from the names of Satyendra nath bose and Albert Einstein. It contains the particles having similar quantum state. Or in other words, it comprises of dilute gas of bosoms cooled to complete zero temperature.
For examples: Superconductors and Superfluids.
Changing states of matter
After discussing about the different properties of matter, now it’s time to get on another interesting topic, i.e. changing states or phase. For the change in matter, sometimes it may require high pressure, temperature and energy. However, there are six phase in which different substances reacts differently to varied temperatures. These phenomenal changes are as follows:
- Freezing: This change of matter arises when a substance changes from liquid to solid at an extreme temperature. For example-water to ice.
- Melting: This change of matter occurs when a substance changes back from solid to liquid. For example-Ice to water.
- Condensation: In this type of change of state, the substance changes from gas to liquid. For example-After a hot shower the water collects on the bathroom mirror.
- Vaporization: This type of state change occurs when a substance changes from liquid to gas. It can only occur from boiling or evaporation. For example-Boiling water.
- Sublimation: In this type of phase, the solid is directly transformed into gas without going through liquid stage. This whole process is known as sublimation. For example-Dry ice.
- Deposition: Often known as De-sublimation. It happens when the gas converts directly into solid without getting through liquid phase. For example-Changing of water vapor directly into ice.
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